6th International Young Scientist Congress (IYSC-2021) and workshop on Intellectual Property Rights on 8th and 9th May 2021.  10th International Science Congress (ISC-2020) will be Postponed to 8th and 9th December 2021 Due to COVID-19.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Formation of Black hole for Inhomogeneous Pressure and Density

Author Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Mathematics, Government Engineering College, Ajmer –305001, INDIA
  • 2 Department of Mathematics, Government College, Jalore –343001, INDIA

Res. J. Engineering Sci., Volume 1, Issue (2), Pages 66-69, August,26 (2012)


We present here the models describing perfect fluid collapse which generalize the homogeneous dust collapse solution by including non-zero pressures and inhomogeneities. It is shown that a black hole or any lighter bodies like white dwarf or neutron star will be generated as end product of gravitational collapse, rather than a body having naked singularity. It is also shown that non-spacelike trajectories can’t escape from the central singularity, formed in this process.


  1. Beig Robert, The maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole, Ann Phys,11, 507 (2000)
  2. Muller T., Falling into a Schwarzschild black hole, GRG,40 (10), 2185-2199 (2008)
  3. Fagnocchi S. and Farese S.,Stress tensor for extreme 2D dilatonic Reissner-Nordstrom black holes, Physical Review D, 72, 024015 (2005)
  4. Cadoni Mariano, D'Appollonio Giuseppe and Pani Paolo, Phase transitions between Reissner-Nordstrom and dilatonic black holes in 4D AdS spacetime,Journal of High Energy Physics,3, 1-27 (2010)
  5. Oldershaw R.L., Hadrons as Kerr-Newman black holes,Journal of Cosmology,6, 1361-1374 (2010)
  6. Oppenheimer J. and Snyder H., On Continued Gravitational Contraction,Phys Rev.,56, 455-459 (1939)
  7. Penrose R., Gravitational collapse: the role of general relativity, Riv. del. Nuovo Cim.,1, 252 (1969) Israel W., Does a cosmic censor exist? Found. Phys.,14, 1049 (1984)
  8. Tolman R.C., Effect of inhomogeneity on cosmological models, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,20, 410, (1934); Bondi H., Spherically symmetric models in general relativity, Mon. Not. Astron.Soc.,107, 343 (1947)
  9. Maeda Kengo, Okamura Takashi and Koga Jun-ichirou, Inhomogeneous charged black hole solutions in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, Phys. Rev. D,85, 066003 (2012)
  10. Goswami R. and Joshi P.S., Black hole formation in perfect fluid collapse,Phys. Rev. D,69 027502 (2004)
  11. Hawking S.W. and Ellis G.F.R., The large scale structure of space-time, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge(1973)
  12. Clarke C.J.S.C., The analysis of space-time singularities, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge(1993)
  13. Joshi P.S. and Dwivedi I.H., Naked singularities in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous Tolman-Bondi dust cloud collapse, Phys. Rev. D,47, 5357 (1993)