5th International Virtual Conference (IVC-2018).  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Assessment of some heavy metals in the liver of freshwater Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Northeastern Nigeria

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria
  • 3Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • 4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
  • 5Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
  • 6Ministry of Animal Resources and Nomadic Resettlement Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria
  • 7Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Res. J. Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sci., Volume 6, Issue (3), Pages 1-6, April,24 (2018)

Abstract

This study was aimed at assessing the levels of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) in the liver of freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) from three fishing sites in Bade Local Government Area along the coast of River Yobe, Northeastern Nigeria. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the liver of (C. gariepinus) were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 41 samples were collected from Gada (n=12), Egjin Kavuru (14) and Zarara (15). The results obtained showed that 95.1% and 65.9% of the studied fish contained Cd and Pb respectively at concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentrations recommended by the WHO/FAO Joint Committee on Food and Additives (JECFA). Concentrations of Cd by location showed no significant difference (P<0.05) among the different fishing sites but there was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in Pb concentrations between fish samples from Gada and EgjinKavuru on one hand and Zarara on the other hand. People who habitually consume catfish from this river stand the risk of exposure to low doses of Cd and Pb. Further studies are therefore recommended to evaluate the heavy metal pollution status of River Yobe and also to ascertain the levels of other nephrotoxic metals in different species of fish, meant for human consumption, from the river.

References

  1. Babatunde A.M., Waidi O.A. and Adeolu A.A. (2012)., Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fish (Hydrocynus forskahlii, Hyperopisus bebe Occidentalis and Clarias gariepinus) Organs in Downstream Ogun Coastal Water, Nigeria., Transnational Journal of Science and Technology, 2(5), 119-133.
  2. Zaharia C. (2015)., Evaluation of water pollution status in Bahlui River (Iasi town area) due to domestic and urban wastewater treatment activities., Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, Bacau, 21(4), 79-88.
  3. Seidel M., Jurzik L., Brettar I., Hofle M.G. and Griebler C. (2016)., Microbial and viral pathogens in freshwater: current research aspects studied in Germany., Environmental Earth Sciences, 75, 1384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6189-x.
  4. Zaharia C. (2017)., Decentralized wastewater treatment systems: Efficiency and its estimated impact against onsite natural water pollution status. A Romanian case study., Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 108, 74-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2017.02.004
  5. Antoniou V., Tsoukali-Papadopoulou H., Epivatianos P. and Nathanael B. (1989)., Cadmium concentrations in beef consumable tissues in relation to age of animals and area of their breeding., Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 43(6), 915-919.
  6. Burger J., Gaines K.F., Boring C.S., Stephens W.L., Snodgrass J., Dixon C., Mc Mahon M., Shukla S., Shukla T. and Gochfeld M. (2002)., Metal Levels in Fish from the Savannah River: Potential Hazards to Fish and Other Receptors., Environmental Research, 89(1), 85-97. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.2002.4330
  7. Frodello J.P., Viale D. and Marchand B. (2002)., Metal concentrations in the milk and tissues of a nursing Tursiops truncates female., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(6), 551-554.
  8. Phillips C.J.C. and Prankel S.H. (2011)., Cadmium and the Welfare of Animals., Elsevier, 451-455.
  9. Roggeman S., van den Brink N., Praet N.V., Blust R. and Bervoets L. (2013)., Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bostaurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behaviour., Environmental Pollution, 172, 186-199. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.09.006
  10. Taweel A., Shuhaimi-Othman M. and Ahmad A.K. (2013)., Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromisniloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption., Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 93, 45-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ecoenv.2013.03.031
  11. Leung H.M., Leung A.O.W., Wang H.S., Ma K.K., Liang Y., Ho K.C., Cheung K.C., Tohidi F. and Yung K.K.L. (2014)., Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 78(1-2), 235-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.marpolbul.2013.10.028
  12. Gann G.L., Powell C.H., Chumchal M.M. and Drenner R. W. (2015)., Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA)., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34(2), 303-306. doi:10.1002/etc.2796
  13. Gu Y.G., Lin Q., Wang X.H., Du F.Y., Yu Z.L. and Huang H.H. (2015)., Heavy metal concentrations in wild fishes captured from the South China Sea and associated health risks., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 96(1-2), 508-512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.04.022
  14. Sibanda T., Selvarajan R. and Tekere M. (2015)., Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(23), 18301-18317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5416-4
  15. Ferner D.J. (2001)., Toxicity Heavy Metals., eMed. J., 2(5), 1.
  16. Nolan K. (1983)., Copper Toxicity Syndrome., J. Orthomol. Psychiatry, 12(4), 270-282. Oboh I.P. and Edema C.U. (2007). Levels of heavy metals in water and fishes from the River Niger, Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 32(2), 29-34.
  17. Duruibe J.O., Ogwuegbu M.O.C. and Egwurugwu J.N. (2007)., Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects., International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(5), 112-118.
  18. Jumba I.O., Kisia S.M. and Kock R. (2007)., Animal Health Problems Attributed to Environmental Contamination in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya: A Case Study on Heavy Metal Poisoning in the Waterbuck Kobus Ellipsiprymnus defassa (Ruppel 1835)., Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 52(2), 270-281.
  19. Dahunsi S.O., Oranusi S.U. and Ishola R.O. (2012)., Differential bioaccumulation of heavy metals in selected biomarkers of Clariasgariepinus(Burchell, 1822) exposed to chemical additives effluent., Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology, 1(5), 100-106.
  20. Galadima A. and Garba Z.N. (2012)., Heavy metals pollution in Nigeria: causes and consequences., Elixir Pollution, 45, 7917-7922
  21. Hoffmann S.R., Blunck S.A., Petersen K.N., Jones E.M., Koval J.C., Misek R., Frick J.A., Cluff H.D., Sime, C.A., McNay M., Beckman K.B., Atkinson M.W., Drew M., Collinge M.D., Bangs E.E. and Harper R.G. (2010)., Cadmium, Copper, Iron, and Zinc Concentrations in Kidneys of Grey Wolves, Canis lupus, from Alaska, Idaho, Montana (USA) and the Northwest Territories (Canada)., Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 85(5), 481-485. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-010-0126-6
  22. Mungai T.M., Owino A.A., Makokha V.A., Gao Y., Yan X. and Wang J. (2006)., Occurrences and toxicological risk assessment of eight heavy metals in agricultural soils from Kenya, Eastern Africa., Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(18), 18533-18541. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7042-1
  23. Nakayama S.M.M., Ikenaka Y., Hamada K., Muzandu K., Choongo K., Yabe J., Umemura T. and Ishizuka M. (2013)., Accumulation and biological effects of metals in wild rats in mining areas of Zambia., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(6), 4907-4918. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2912-6
  24. Dickman M.D. and Leung K.M. (1998)., Mercury and organochlorine exposure from fish consumption in Hong Kong., Chemosphere, 37(5), 991-1015.
  25. Olaifa F.E. and Ayodele I.A. (2004)., Presence of hydrocarbon and heavy metals in some fish species in the Cross River, Nigeria., African Journal Livestock Extension, 3, 90-95.
  26. Bastami K.D., Afkhami M., Mohammadizadeh M., Ehsanpour M., Chambari S., Aghaei S., Esmaeilzadeh M., Neyestani M.R., Lagzaee F. and Baniamam M. (2015)., Bioaccumulation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the sediments and mullet Liza klunzingeri in the northern part of the Persian Gulf., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 94(1-2), 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.01.019
  27. Buikema A.L., Niederlehner B.R. and Cairns J. (1982)., Biological Monitoring: Part IV - Toxicity Testing., Water Res., 16(3), 239-262.
  28. Squadrone S., Benedetto A., Brizio P., Prearo M. and Abete C. (2015)., Mercury and selenium in European catfish (Silurusglanis) from Northern Italian Rivers: Can molar ratio be a predictive factor for mercury toxicity in a top predator?., Chemosphere, 119, 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.052
  29. Labonne M., Basin S., Othman D. and Luck J. (2001)., Lead Isotopes in Muscels as Tracers of Metal Sources and Water Movements in a Lagoon (Thau Basin, S. France)., Chemical Geology, 181(1-4), 181-191.
  30. Goodwin T.H., Young A., Holmes M., Old G., Hewitt N., Leeks G., Packman J. and Smith B. (2003)., The Temporal and Spatial Variability of Sediment Transport and Yields within the Bradford Beck Catchment, West Yorkshire., Science of the Total Environment, 314, 475-494
  31. Osman A., Wuertz S., Mekkawy I., Exner H. and Kirschbaum F. (2007)., Lead Induced Malformations in Embryos of the African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)., Environmental Toxicology, 22(4), 375-389.
  32. Uzairu A., Harrison G.F.S., Balarabe M.L. and Nnaji J.C. (2009)., Concentration Levels of Trace Metals in Fish and Sediment from Kubanni River, Northern Nigeria., Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop, 23(1), 9-17.
  33. Authman M.M.N., Zaki M.S., Khallaf E.A. and Abbas H.H. (2015)., Use of Fish as Bio-indicator of the Effects of Heavy Metals Pollution., Journal of Aquatic Research and Development, 6(4), 1-13. doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000328
  34. Arulkumar A., Paramasivam S. and Rajaram R. (2017)., Toxic heavy metals in commercially important food fishes collected from Palk Bay, Southeastern India., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 119(1), 454-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.045
  35. Kakulu S.E., Osibanjo O. and Ajayi S.O. (1987)., Trace metal content of fish and shellfishes of the Niger delta area of Nigeria., Environment International, 13(3), 247-251.
  36. Oboh I.P. and Edema C.U. (2007)., Levels of heavy metals in water and fishes from the River Niger., Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 32(2), 29-34.
  37. Ogamba E.N., Inyang I.R. and Seiyaboh E.I. (2010)., Levels of Cadmium and Lead in the Tissue and Liver of Fish (Clariasgariepinus) around some Oil-Flow Stations in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta., African Journal of Applied Zoology & Environmental Biology, 12(1), 1-6.
  38. Eneji I.S., ShaiAto R. and Annune P.A. (2011)., Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fish (Tilapia zilli and Clariasgariepinus) Organs from River Benue, North n Central Nigeria., Pakistan Journal of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, 12(1-2), 25-31.
  39. George F., Raymond O., Dominic O. and Toyin A. (2013)., Seasonal Variation in Heavy Metal Content of Tongue Sole, Cynoglossus brownii and Croaker, Pseudotolithus typus from Lagos and Delta States, Nigeria., British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 3(4), 1548-1557.
  40. Udiba U.U., GaujeBalli Odey M.O., Umar S.M., Ashade N. O., Odeke E.H., Mukhtar Bala and Dawaki S.I. (2014)., Contaminants Levels of African Cat Fish (Clariasgariepinus) Tissues: A Comparative Study of River Galma, River Kubanni and Fish Farms in Zaria, Nigeria., Merit Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology, 2(8), 156-166.
  41. Adeosun F.I., Akinyemi A.A., Idowu A.A., Taiwo I.O., Omoike A. and Ayorinde B.J.O. (2015)., The effects of heavy metals concentration on some commercial fish in Ogun River, Opeji, Ogun State, Nigeria., African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9(4), 365-370. Doi:10.5897/AJEST2014.1659
  42. KYBP (2006)., Komadugu Yobe Basin Water Audit Report by Afremedev Consultancy Services Limited for FMWR-IUCN-NCF Komadugu Yobe Basin Project, Kano, Nigeria.,
  43. Waziri M. and Ogugbuaja V.O. (2010)., Interrelationships between physicochemical water pollution indicators: a case study of River Yobe-Nigeria., American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1(1), 76-80.
  44. National Population Commission (NPC) (2006), http://www.population.gov.ng/, undefined, undefined
  45. Oruonye E.D. (2009)., Geographical Aspects of Yobe State., Fab Educational Books, Jos. ISBN 978-978-900-433-1,121.
  46. Barchiesi S., Cartin M., Welling R. and Yawson D. (2013)., Water and Nature Initiative (Wani): Case Study- Komadugu Yobe Basin., Upstream of Lake Chad, Nigeria. GPS Printing, France https://portals.iucn.org/library/node/10105
  47. Asegbeloyin J.N., Onyimonyi A.E., Ujam O.T., Ukwueze N.N. and Ukoha P.O. (2010)., Assessment of toxic trace metals in Selected Fish Species and Parts of Domestic Animals., Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(3), 213-215.
  48. JECFA (2011)., Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods., 5th session, 64-89.
  49. Uduak O. and Hassan U.M. (2007)., Analysis of dust storm for some metals., Journal of Allied Science and Technology, 2(1), 76-82.
  50. National Agency for Food Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) (2006), RE: Kidney Disease in Bade Local Government Area. Report of water analysis, Ref: NAFDAC/70/COM/0047., undefined, undefined
  51. Ghazaly K.S. (1992)., A comparative study of trace element accumulation in tissues of the teleost Tilapia zilii from contaminated and clean areas., Bulletin of the Nat. Inst. Ocean Fish, ARE, 18, 37-41.
  52. Swales S., Storey A.W., Roderick I.D., Figa B.S., Bakowa K.A. and Tenakanai C.D. (1998)., Biological monitoring of the impacts of the Ok Tedi copper mine on fish populations in the Fly River system, Papua New Guinea., Science of the Total Environment, 214, 99-111.
  53. Page A.L., El Amamy M.M. and Chang A.C. (1986)., Cadmium in the environment and its entry into terrestrial food chain crops., In: Foulkes, E.C. eds., Handbook of experimental pharmacology, 80, 33-74.
  54. ATSDR (1999)., Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry., Toxicological profile for cadmium http:// www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp5.html.
  55. Zasadowski A., Barski D., Markiewicz K., Zasadowski Z., Spodniewska A. and Terlecka A. (1999)., Levels of cadmium contamination of domestic animals (cattle) in the region of Warmia and Masuria., Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 8(6), 443-446.