6th International Virtual Congress (IVC-2019) And Workshop.  International E-publication: Publish Projects, Dissertation, Theses, Books, Souvenir, Conference Proceeding with ISBN.  International E-Bulletin: Information/News regarding: Academics and Research

Detection and characterization of cashew leaf and nut blight disease in the Eastern and the Southern Zones of Tanzania

Author Affiliations

  • 1School of Life sciences and Bio-engineering the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), P. O. Box 447, Arusha-Tanzania and Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 509, Mtwara - Tanzania
  • 2Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 509, Mtwara - Tanzania
  • 3Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 509, Mtwara - Tanzania
  • 4School of Life sciences and Bio-engineering the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST), P. O. Box 447, Arusha-Tanzania

Res. J. Agriculture & Forestry Sci., Volume 7, Issue (2), Pages 36-44, April,8 (2019)

Abstract

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.) is export crop and source of income for many households in Southern and Eastern zones of Tanzania. However, its productivity is facing a number of challenges among them are diseases and insect pests. Previously cashew powdery mildew was known to be the main disease of cashew. However, cashew Leaf and Nut Blight Disease (CLNBD) has been cited as one of the most devastating diseases in cashew industry. The disease leads into lower cashew nut yields and poor nut qualities. A study was carried out to investigate detection and characterization of CLNBD in eastern and southern zones of Tanzania. A total of ninety leaf samples infected by the disease were collected for isolation of the fungus. The fungus was isolated by direct conidial transfer method on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and every procedure was carried out in aseptic conditions to prevent micro-organisms contamination. DNA was extracted and amplified using Polymerise Chain Reaction (PCR). The PCR results by using primer ITS5 (forward) and ITS4 (reverse) was amplified at above 500 bp and results by using primer ITS1 (forward) and ITS4 (reverse) was also amplified at above 320 bp and bands were observed respectively. Twenty four DNA samples from three regions were sent for sequencing. The nucleotide BLAST analysis showed that ten isolates had maximum nucleotide identities of 97-99% of cashew leaf and nut blight disease and were deposited in the gene bank. The phylogenetic relationship tree was reconstructed using the nucleotide sequences. The neighbour-joining and bootstrap methods show that CLNBD have more than one fungal strain which makes to be a complex disease.

References

  1. Ohler J.G. (1979)., Cashew. Communication No. 71., Department of Agricultural Research, Royal Tropical Institute. Amsterdam, Holland.
  2. Azam-Ali S. and Judge E. (2000)., The global cashew industry-opportunities for small-scale processors., In: Proceedings of the international workshop on cashew production and processing-Cashing in on Cashew, 1-10. Marawila: Sri Lanka.http://www.academicjournals.org /JYFR. DOI: 10.5897/JYFR12.006
  3. Masawe P.A.L. (1994)., Aspect of breeding and selecting improved cashew genotypes (Anacardium occidentale L.)., PhD Thesis, University of Reading, Department of Agricultural Botany.
  4. Topper C. and Boma F. (1997)., Evaluation of fungicides for the control of powdery on cashew., A paper submitted to registrar of pesticides TPRI, P O Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania.
  5. Masawe P.A.L. (2006)., Tanzanian Cashew Cultivars Selected Clones., Cashew Research Programme, Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Mtwara, Tanzania. ISBN 9987-446-01-9
  6. Dominic M., Makobe M., Agboton B., Shomari S. and Tiedemann A. (2014)., Biology and infection mechanisms of Cryptosporiopsis spp. fungus causing blight disease on cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.)., J. Plant Sci, 2, 266-275. DOI: 10.11648/j.jps.20140206.12
  7. Sobhana A., Matthew J. and Mini C. (2010)., Utilisation of cashew apple in the food industry in India., Proceedings of the Second International Cashew Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 26-29 April 2010, 150-156.
  8. Akinwale T.O. (2000)., Cashew apple juice: Its use in fortifying the nutritional quality of some tropical fruits., Eur. Food Res. Technol., 211(3), 205-207.
  9. Opeke L.K. (2005)., Tropical Commodity Tree Crops., Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. 360, 371-373.
  10. Kasuga L.J. (2013)., Status of the cashew nut industry in Tanzania., In Proceedings of the Second Cashew International Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 26-29 April 2010. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. ISBN 13: 988-9987-446-05-6
  11. CBT. (2015)., Cashewnut Board of Tanzania procurement records 2015/16 season.,
  12. Anonymous (2017)., Annual Cashew Research Report, for 2017/2018., Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Dodoma, Tanzania.
  13. Topper C.P., Boma F. and Mhando H. (1997)., Evaluation of fungicides for the control of powdery mildew (Oidium anacardii Noack) on cashew in Tanzania. B. On-farm testing of fungicide control strategies., In Topper C.P., Calig-ari P.D.S., Kullaya A.K., Shomari S.H., Kasuga L.J., Masawe P.A.L. and Mpunami A.A., Proceedings of the International Cashew and Coconut Conference, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 17-21 February 1997, 270-276.
  14. Ellias F. (1980)., A preliminary analysis of the decline in cashew nut production, 1974-1979: Causes, possible remedies and lessons for rural development policy., Economic Research Bureau, University of Dar es Salaam, 79.
  15. Brown L.C., Minja E. and Hamad A.S. (1984)., Cashew production in East Africa., Paper presented at CABI's First Scientific Conference on Advancing Agricultural Production in Africa, Arusha, Tanzania, 12-18.
  16. Castellani E. and Casulli F. (1981)., Osservazioni Preliminari su Oidium Anacardii Noack agente del mal bianco dell'anacardio., Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale, 75(2-3), 211-222.
  17. Intini M. (1987)., Phytopathological aspects of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania., International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 5, 115-130.
  18. Sijaona M.E.R. and Shomari S.H. (1987)., The powdery mildew disease of cashew in Tanzania., TARO Newsletter, 2(3), 4-5.
  19. Sijaona M.E.R. (1984)., Investigation into the effectiveness of sulphur W.P. against Oidium Anacardii Noack on five-cashew tree types at Naliendele., Rivista di Agricoltura Subtropicale e Tropicale,78(2), 197-209.
  20. Shomari S.H. (1988)., A review of cashew research in Tanzania., Paper presented at the Tanzanian Agricultural Research Masterplan Conference, Arusha, 12-15 December 1988.
  21. Sijaona M.E.R., Reeder R.H. and Waller J.M. (2005)., Cashew leaf and nut blight - A new disease of cashew in Tanzania caused by Cryptosporiopsisspp., New Disease Reports, 12, 13. http:www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/jan2006/2005-75.asp
  22. Sijaona M.E.R., Reeder R.H. and Waller J.M. (2006)., Cashew leaf and nut blight - A new disease of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Tanzania caused by Cryptosporiopsissp., (http://www.bsapp.org.uk/ndr/jan 2006 /2005-75.asp)
  23. Menge D., Martha M., Bonaventure A., Shamte S. and Andreas T. (2013)., Effect of environmental conditions on the growth of Cryptosporiopsis spp. causing leaf and nut blight on cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)., Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research, 4(2), 12-20.
  24. Dominic M., Makobe M., Agboton B., Shomari S. and Tiedemann A. (2014)., Biology and infection mechanisms of Cryptosporiopsis spp. fungus causing blight disease on cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.)., J. Plant Sci, 2, 266-275. DOI: 10.11648/j.jps.20140206.12
  25. White T.J., Bruns T., Lee S.J.W.T. and Taylor J.L. (1990)., Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics., PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications, 18(1), 315-322.
  26. Tamura K. and Nei M. (1993)., Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees., Molecular biology and evolution, 10(3), 512-526.
  27. Kumar S., Stecher G. and Tamura K. (2016)., MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets., Molecular biology and evolution, 33(7), 1870-1874.